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Islamabad (Urdu: اسلام آباد Islām ābād) is the capital city of Pakistan and the ninth largest city in the country. Located within the Islamabad Capital Territory (ICT), the population of the city has grown from 100,000 in 1951 to 1.15 million as of 2011. The greater Islamabad-Rawalpindi Metropolitan Area is the third largest conurbation in Pakistan with a population of over 4.5 million inhabitants. Since its foundation, Islamabad has attracted people from all over Pakistan, making it one of the most cosmopolitan and urbanised cities of Pakistan. Islamabad as the capital, is the seat of Government of Pakistan, the Presidential Palace known as the Aiwan-e-Sadr is also located here. Islamabad is home to the Pakistan Monument, which is one of the two national monument's of Pakistan.
Islamabad is a modern city located in the Pothohar Plateau in the northeastern part of the country, within the Islamabad Capital Territory. The region has historically been a part of the crossroads of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa with Margalla pass acting as the gateway between the two regions. The city was built during the 1960s to replace Karachi as Pakistan's capital. Islamabad is a well-organised international city divided into several different sectors and zones. It is regarded as the most developed city in Pakistan and is ranked as a Gamma- world city. The city is home to Faisal Mosque, the largest mosque in South Asia and the fourth largest mosque in the world.
Islamabad has the highest literacy rate in Pakistan. There are 16 recognised universities in Islamabad including some of the top-ranked universities in Pakistan; Quaid-i-Azam University, Pakistan Institute of Engineering & Applied Sciences, and National University of Sciences and Technology. Allama Iqbal Open University in Islamabad is one of the world's largest universities by enrollment. Islamabad has the lowest rate of infant mortality in the country at 38 deaths per thousand compared to the national average of 78 deaths per thousand. Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences hospital in Islamabad is one of the largest hospitals in Pakistan.
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